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人工智能,有朝一日会取代科学家吗?

发布日期: 2019-07-29 信息来源: 光明日报

亚博APP   chuantongrenwei,kejigongzuoyinqigaodudechuangxinxing,yincikejigongzuozhehennanbeirengongzhinengqudai。danriqian,guojixueshuqikan《ziran》fabiaodeyipianlunwenxiyinledajiadeyanqiu。kexuejiamengaizaoleyizhongqichezhuangpeixianshangchangjiandejiqiren,rangtakeyizaihuaxueshiyanshineigongzuo。tongguoyujiqixuexisuanfaxianglian,zheizhongjiqirenkeyishiyongherenleihuaxuejiayiyangdebiaozhunfenxiyiqi,“xiangdangyushiyanjiurenyuanerfeiyiqibiandezidonghua”。tongshi,youyutaherenleitijixiangdang,keyizaichuantongshiyanshineigongzuo,erwuxujianlihuogaizaoxinshiyanshi。zaitigaoyizhongjuheguangcuihuajixingnengdeshiyanzhong,zheikuanjiqirenzai2~3tianneibianyouhualefanyingtiaojian,errenleiyaojigeyuedeshijiancainengzuodao。yuanyinzhiyi,jiushizheizhongjiqirencaiqulejiguangsaomiaohechujuefankuixiangjiehedefangshishixiandingwei,erbushishijuexitong——buyong“kan”dejiqirenwuxuguangliang,yincijidaditigaoleguangcuihuashiyandexiaolv。yanjiuzherenwei,zheigejiqirenjiangzaichuantongshiyanshiyougengduoyingyong。neime,rengongzhinenghuiqudaihuaxuejiama?huiqudaikexuejiama?benqi,womenyaoqinglanzhoudaxuehuaxuehuagongxueyuanjiaoshouwangwei,zhongguokexueyuanzidonghuayanjiusuoyanjiuyuanhouzengguang,hezhongguokexueyuanwuliyanjiusuoyanjiuyuanwangleiyiqilaitantanzheigehuati。

亚博APP   1.rengongzhinengyichengweikexuejiadehaobangshou

亚博APP   houzengguang(zhongguokexueyuanzidonghuayanjiusuoyanjiuyuan): jiandandishuo,《ziran》kandengdelunwenzaijishufangmianyoulianggeliangdian。yishicaiyongjiqirendaitichuantongshiyanshideshiyanyuan,kefuleguangcuihuashiyanrengongcaozuoguochengzhongdeyixiewenti。zheigeshiyanyingyongdejiushichangjiandejuyoujixiebeideyidongjiqirenpingtai,talianxuyunxingle8tian,zuole688geshiyan。diergeliangdianshicaiyonglebeiyesisuanfa,zheishiyizhongjiyugailvtongjidefenleisuanfa,shishiyanxiaolvdadatisheng。

   jiqirenzuizaozaizhizaoheshengchanlingyudedaoyingyong。muqian,zaikexuefaxianlingyu,jiqirenzaijingduyaoqiubijiaogaodechangjingzhong,rushijianjingdu、weizhijingdu、caozuojingdudeng,youlehenduoyingyong。liru,rengongshoujingyaoqiubajingzizhunquedisongruluanzizhong,jingduyaoqiubijiaogao,zheileirenwuruguocaiyongjiqirenjiangbirengongcaozuodexiaolvgaohenduo。

   rengongzhinengdeyingyongjikeyandailaihenduoxinbianhua,zengjialexinkeneng。biru,caiyongrengongzhinengfangfaduishujudecaijigengkeguan、fenxigengzhunque。tongshi,rengongzhinengyouqiangdadejisuannengli,nenggoufaxianrenrongyihulvedexiaoyangbenshijian、hanjianyangbenshijian,kenengjikexueyanjiudailaiyixiangbudaodefaxian。

   wangwei(lanzhoudaxuehuaxuehuagongxueyuanjiaoshou): rengongzhinengruhebangzhuhuaxuejia?womenshouxianyaolijie“huaxuexueke”he“rengongzhineng”deneihanhewaiyan,panduantamengezimianlindepingjinghefazhandefangxiang,zaifenxitamenkenengcaiyongshenmefangshijiaohuirongtong。

   huaxueshifaxianhechuangzaowuzhidexueke。yaojiejuedejibenwentibaokuo: wuzhiruhe(jingzhun)chuangzhi?wuzhidezuchenghejiegouruhe?wuzhiyoushenme(dute)degongneng?shangshuwentidejiejue,conggenbenshangjiangxuyaoduiweiguanwuzhishijiededicengluojixingchengliluntixi。yinci,huaxuexuekejixuyaodongnao,yexuyaodongshou: congfaxianhechuangzaowuzhideshijianzhonghuodeshuju,congshujuzhongzongjiexindejingyanheguilv,zaicongjingyanheguilvzhongzhidaoweizhide、huodexinshujudeshijian。jianyanzhi,huaxuexuekedefazhanxuyaocongweiguandaohongguandeduochiducengjishang,gaoxiaojingzhunhuoqushuju、jianlishujuhelilunzhijiandeqianglianjie、wanbeililuntixi。

   xinyidairengongzhinengdehexinshizaidashujujichushangjiangzhinengwentizhuanhuaweishujuwenti,qifazhanxuyaosangehexinyaosudezhicheng: jisuannengli、hailiangshuju、shuxuesuanfa。rengongzhinengdejibencengjishizhinengfangdahezonghe,baokuoxinxidecaiji、luruhefenxi。jinjiecengjishizhinengyuce,jizaidashujujichushangyucetedingshiwudefashenggailv。gaojicengjishizhinengxuexi,jitongguosuanfashangdegexin,tuporenleidesikaomoshi,zaijibenguilvxiazizhudichuangzaojiqidesikaomoshi,congershuchuquanjuzuiyoudejieguo。

亚博APP   rengongzhinengzaihuaxuelingyuzhongdeyingyongchujianduanni。qiduiyuhuaxuejiadebangzhukenengbiaoxianzaiyixiajigecengji: yishifuzhudongshou,gaoxiaohuodeshuju。ershifuzhudongnao。tongguoduihailiangshujudefenxi,rengongzhinengkenengyucechuxindewuzhihechengtujing、faxianwuzhidexingongneng、jianlixindeluojilianjie(gouxiaoguanxi)deng。sanshizhenduihuaxuelingyudehexinwenti,tongguoshenduxuexi(suanfachuangxin)heshenduzidonghua,shixiandongshouhedongnaodeshendujiehe,wanchengzizhuchuangxin。yicibiaozhunhengliang,rengongzhinengzaihuaxuelingyuzhongdeyingyonghaichuzaiqibujieduan。《ziran》zheipiangongzuodehexinliangdianshitigonglegaoxiaohuoqushujudeshenduzidonghuayanjiupingtai,weijianglaidongnaohedongshoudeyouxiaojieheqidaoshifanzuoyong。

亚博APP   wanglei(zhongguokexueyuanwulisuoyanjiuyuan): jintianderengongzhinengyijingzaikeyanlingyujikexuejiadailaihenduobangzhu。womenkeyixiangxiang,aidishengfamingdengxin,yaoduigezhongcailiaobutingshicuo,ruguoyouzheizhongjiqirendebangzhu,neikenengtizaodiandengdefaming。qishi,zaikeyanlingyuyouhenduoleisideyingyong。biruwomenzhongkeyuanwulisuo,zaijingticailiaodehechengheshengzhangshang,jiushiyongrengongzhinengzuoweifuzhu。womensuojibeikeyanrenyuanzaizheigexingyeshengengjishinian,liuxialefengfudeshiyanshuju,dandoushixiezaizhishangde。womenbazheixieshiyanjilushuzihua,zai“xunlian”yigeshibiechengxu,jiunengyonglaiyucejingtinengbunengzhangchengdeng。zaibiru,zaicailiaokexuezhong,henduoshihoukexuejiamenyaocongcailiaoweiguanzucheng,liruyuanzipailieshunxudeng,laituicecailiaokenengjubeidehongguangongneng,liruqinshuixingdeng。tongchangzheigejisuanshihenfuzade,xuyaohaofeidaliangshijian。xianzai,rengongzhinengtongguo“xuexi”zhiqiandejisuanjieguo,yijingkeyiwanchengzheibufengongzuo。dangran,qizhunquexinghaiyouhendatishengkongjian。

   2.shenmeyangdekejigongzuozhehuibeitidai

亚博APP   wangwei: wodejibenguandianshi: rengongzhinengzaiweilaihuitidaizhongfuxingdehuaxueshiyanheceshigongzuo,youkenenggaibianshenzhibiangehuaxueyanjiudefanshi,danconggenbenshangwufatidaihuaxuejia。

   jiuhuoqushujueryan,rengongzhinengzaiyuxianshejidehuaxueshiyanzhongbiaoxiandegengjiagaoxiao。xiangjiaoyurendecaozuo,qibiaozhunhuachengdugenggao、wuchagengxiao,nengbangzhuhuaxuejiahuodegengdaliangde、biaozhunhuade、keduibideshuju。jiushujufenxieryan,xiangbiyurenleijiyiyijilijieshujudejuxianxing,rengongzhinengkeyigengweijingzhun、youxiaodishouji、fenxi、zhengheshuju,bingkenengxunzhaodaoxiangyingdeguilv。yinci,rengongzhinengyoukenengzaihuaxuelingyudeyingyongzhonglvxianqudetupo,congergaibianshenzhibiangehuaxueyanjiudejibenmoshi。

亚博APP   erqudetupodexianjuetiaojianzhishaoyouliangdian。yishihuoquhailiangshuju。rengongzhinengdejichushidashuju。jiujiqixuexidexuqiueryan,muqianhuaxuelingyusuonengtigongdeshujushuliangfeichangyouxian、keduibidujidi。ershishixiansuanfachuangxin。jiyuhuaxuelingyutichudetedingkexuewenti,zaihailiangshujucunzaideqiantixia,tongguosuanfachuangxin,tupohuaxuelingyuxianyoudesikaomoshihelilunkuangjia,suodingduocanshufuzatixidezuiyoujie。jiucieryan,rengongzhinengzaihuaxuelingyuzhongdeyingyonghaiyouhenzhangdedaoluyaozou。

   houzengguang: rengongzhinenghenkenengjishiyanshidailaijudabiange,shenzhichuxianwurenshiyanshi。danworenwei,duanshijiannei,rengongzhinenghejiqirenbunengtidaikexuejia。womenkan《ziran》kandengdezheigeshiyanzhong,jinxingshiyandingcengshejide,birushiyanjiagoudeng,haishikexuejia,jiqirenherengongzhinengzhibuguoshirendeshouheyandeyanshen。worenwei,jibianshenduxuexidengrengongzhinengfangfafazhanqilai,yebutaikenengtidaikexuejia。yinweirengongzhinengshijianlizaisuanfazhishang,tadenenglidehuoqushijiyudaliangshujudelaide,qiangdadejiyushujudejisuannenglishirengongzhinengdehexinnengli。danrengongzhinenghezhenshideshengwuzhinenghaiyouhendachaju,renconglaijiubushizheimesikaode,renleidezhinengshijiyuzhishi、erfeijiyushujude。erzheidian,rengongzhinenghaizuobudao。biruwomenketizuzaiyanjiushoushujiqiren。zaimouxiefangmian,tadejingzhundubiputongyishengyaogao。danshirentishifeichangfuzade,meigerendeqingkuangyeqianchawanbie,yudaofuzabingzao、fuzazhangairuhechuli?zheidianjiqirenhaibuxing,bibushangjingyanfengfudeyisheng。yinweizheixienenglihepanduandoushijiyujingyanzhishide,erfeijiandanshuju。

   wanglei: keyanzhong,neixiezhongfuxinggaode、yougudingliuchengdegongzuokenengbeitidai。danduiyushifounengtidaikexuejiazheigewenti,wodekanfashibijiaobaoshoude。biruwomenwulixue,zuizhongyaodeshizaixianxiangzhongfaxianxindewulidinglv。danmuqianderengongzhinengsuanfa,haikanbudaonengfaxianxinwulidinglvdekeneng,zuochuchuangxinxingfaxiandekenengxingbijiaoxiao。woxianzaizuodeshenduxuexiyujisuanwulijiaochadeyanjiu,qimamuqianhaimeiyoukandaorengongzhinengnenggouqudaikexuejiadezhengju。suiranxianzaiyeyouhenduoshiyanmoniyigehuanjing,kankanrengongzhinengshifounengqudezhongxinfaxian。birujirengongzhinengwanyouyinlidinglvfaxianzhiqiandegezhongshuju,kanrengongzhinengnengbunengxiangniudunyiyangfaxianwanyouyinlidinglv。youxieshiyanshengchenghuodelehenhaodejieguo,danzixiyanjiuzheixieshiyan,huifaxianqizhongyouhenduokekongdekongjian。yinci,wozongtirenwei,muqianderengongzhinengzuochuchuangzaoxingfaxiandekenengxingbijiaoxiao。

亚博APP   3.rengongzhinengshifouhuiyinfayurenzhenggongzuodelunliyinyou

亚博APP   houzengguang: wojuedezheifangmiandanyoushibubiyaode。womenjiezhurengongzhinenghejiqirenkeyitigaogongzuoxiaolv,barencongzhongfuxingde、weixianxingdegongzuozhongjiefangchulai。zheishiyizhongshehuidejinbu。dangran,rengongzhinengdefazhanyemianlinhenduolunliwenti,zheibukenengzaiyigefangtanzhongjintan。wozhinengcongwosuozaidezheigelingyutanyigelunliwentidelizi: muqianderengongzhinengfangfashibunenggoubaozhengjisuanjieguobaifenbaizhengque,womenyinggaibashenmeyangwentidejuedingquanjiaojirengongzhineng?ruguochuxianshiwu,zheigezerenyinggaiyousheilaichengdan?womenzaiyishoushujiqirenweili。zhiqianshuoguo,rentishishifenfuzade,shoushuzhonghuiyudaogezhonggeyangdezhuangkuang。ruguoshirenzuoshoushu,tahenqingchuzijinenglihuojishudebianjiezainali,shenmeyangdewentishitabunengjiejuede。yinci,keyijishixianglaoshi、qianbeiqingjiao,huozheyaoqingqitakeshidedafulaihuizhen。danruguoshijiqirenzizhuzuoshoushu,tashianzhaochengxulaiyunxingde,zheigechengxubukenengbaohansuoyoukenengfashengdeqingkuang,jiqirenyebuhuiqingchuzijinenglihejishudebianjie。neime,zaimouxiechengxujiaoyoujiqirenlaipanduanhejuedingdeqingkuangxia,yidanshoushushibai,zheigezerenyousheilaichengdan?shisuanfadeyanjiuzhe,shijiqirendezhizaoshang,haishianxiacaozuojiandeyihurenyuan?zheishiyigezhidedajiaguanzhudelunliwenti。

   wanglei: meiyicijishudegengxinhuandai,douhuidailaichanyedebianhua,mouxiegongzhongkenengbeitidai,congeryindaolaodonglixiangbutongdefangxiangfenliu。wojuedecongrenleizhengtidefazhaneryan,yurenzhenggongzuozheigelunliwentikenengbushizuijipode。womenmuqiantaolungengduodelunliwenti,shiruherangjiqibu“ranshang”renleidepianjian。womenzhidao,rengongzhinengshijiyudashujude,zheixieshujujidebiaoqiandezhibeiguochengdouxuyaoren。tebieshi,yuanlaishujujishiyourenxiede,kenenghuijinxingkezhi。xianzaishujujidoushihulianwangsoujide,pianjianhennanbimian,birujiyufusedepianjian、jiyuxingbiedepianjiandeng。neime,zairengongzhinengdeyingyongzhong,ruhezaisuanfazhongquchuzheixiepianjian,shiwomenyaomianduidebijiaojinpodelunliwenti。 

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